Sat, 06/03/2023 - 18:33

June 3, 2023
Inflammatory response, a physiological reaction to infection or damage, plays a significant role in health and disease. Macrophage has a significant impact in immune response and inflammation. The cells inducing inflammation, also initiate and maintain specific immune responses by secreting various types of cytokines. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), a toxic molecule derived from gram-negative bacteria cell walls, activates macrophages to release numerous inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anion, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Over production of these inflammatory mediators is involved in many inflammation associated disorders. Therefore, inflammatory mediator inhibition is believed to be a good approach for treatment of inflammatory diseases.

Achillea millefolium L., known as yarrow, is a member of the Asteraceae family and has been used in folk medicine for hundreds of years in many countries ranging from Europe to Asia.