Saturday, June 3, 2023 - 18:33

June 3, 2023
Inflammatory response, a physiological reaction to infection or damage, plays a significant role in health and disease. Macrophage has a significant impact in immune response and inflammation. The cells inducing inflammation, also initiate and maintain specific immune responses by secreting various types of cytokines. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), a toxic molecule derived from gram-negative bacteria cell walls, activates macrophages to release numerous inflammatory mediators, such as nitric oxide (NO), superoxide anion, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Over production of these inflammatory mediators is involved in many inflammation associated disorders. Therefore, inflammatory mediator inhibition is believed to be a good approach for treatment of inflammatory diseases.

Achillea millefolium L., known as yarrow, is a member of the Asteraceae family and has been used in folk medicine for hundreds of years in many countries ranging from Europe to Asia.

Yarrow essential oil is blue in color due to the presence of chamazulene. Its aroma is somewhat similar to blue tansy.  Yarrow has been traditionally used to treat inflammatory and spasmodic gastrointestinal disorders, hepatobiliary complaints and overactive cardiovascular and respiratory ailments. In addition, yarrow is used as an appetite-enhancing agent because of its bitter taste; it has further been used in wound healing, as an antiulcer agent and as an anti-inflammation agent.Since yarrow essential oil is often used for inflammatory conditions and skin conditions, a laboratory study found that yarrow essential oil suppresses the inflammatory response by reducing inducible nitric oxide levels in cells, pro-inflammatory pathways (COX-2, TNF-alpha, IL-6, and HO-1), and oxidative stress. Altogether, this research suggests that yarrow essential oil has a place in the management of inflammatory conditions.