Sunday, March 26, 2023 - 18:38

March 29, 2023

Rose (Rosa damascena) as an ornamental plant is commonly known as “Gole Mohammadi” in Iran. Iranian people have been called this plant, the flower of Prophet “Mohammad”. 

Rosa damascena is traditionally used for treatment of abdominal and chest pains, strengthening the heart, menstrual bleeding, digestive problems and constipation. This plant has an important position in Iranian traditional medicine. It is economically a valuable plant with therapeutic applications in modern medicine. The antimicrobial, antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-depressant properties of Rosa damascena have been confirmed. Citronellol and geraniol as the main components of Rosa damascena essential oil are responsible for pharmacological activities.

Rosa damascena as the king of flowers has been the symbol of love, purity, faith and beauty since the ancient times. It was originated from Iran and essential oil extracting from its flowers has been started since 7th century A.D. It was brought to Europe and has been cultivated in European countries. Nowadays, Bulgaria and Turkey are the main producers of Rosa damascena essential oil in the world and the Bulgarian Rosa damascena oil is the known best ones. The Iranian people called it, Gol-E-Mohammadi (the flower of Prophet “Mohammad”) Rosa damascena flowers should handpick daily at early morning and are used immediately after harvesting for industrial purposes.  

What is Rose Essential Oil ?

Rose essential oil typically comes from the damask rose (Rosa damascena) plant and it takes around 10,000 rose petals to make one pound of oil, which is why it’s one of the more expensive essential oils.

Rose essential oil or liquid gold is expensive yellow pale essential oil that is steam distilled from the flower petals. The oil distilled from damask roses is sometimes sold as Bulgarian rose oil or Bulgarian rose otto. Bulgaria, Turkey and Morocco are the main producers of rose essential oil in the world.The essential oil yield from Bulgarian rose varied from 0.032–0.049% (w/w). Rose essential oil has a very rich floral scent that is both sweet and slightly spicy at the same time.

Researchers have uncovered that rose essential oil contains several therapeutic compounds:

  • Citronellol – effective mosquito repellant (also found in citronella).
  • Citral – strong antimicrobial that is necessary for vitamin A synthesis (also found in lemon myrtle and lemongrass).
  • Carvone – effective digestive aid (also found in caraway and dill).
  • Citronellyl Acetate – responsible for the pleasant flavor and aroma of roses, which is why it’s in many skin and beauty products.
  • Eugenol – also the powerhouse behind clove, the richest antioxidant in the world.
  • Farnesol – natural pesticide (also found in orange blossom, jasmine and ylang-ylang).
  • Methyl Eugenol – local antiseptic and anesthetic (also found in cinnamon and lemon balm).
  • Nerol – sweet-smelling aromatic antibiotic compound (also found in lemongrass and hops).
  • Phenyl Acetaldehyde – another sweet-smelling and aromatic compound (also found in chocolate).
  • Phenyl Geraniol – natural form of geraniol, which is commonly in perfumes and fruit flavorings.

The chemical compositions of rose essential oil change under different conditions; one of the most factors is the used plant's organ. For example, citronellol is obtained with a better yield in petals. Other factor is the freshness or dryness of petals that can affect on chemical compositions of rose essential oil

Traditional uses of rose products

In Iranian traditional Medicines, the decoction of flowers was used for treatment of chest and abdominal pains, menstrual bleeding and digestive ailments (gentle laxative for constipation). It has been famous as cardiotonic agent for strengthening the heart. Rose essential oil was extracted by AveSina (Famous Iranian Scientist) in 10th century and was used for treatment of different ailments. Rose water traditionally was used as antiseptic agent for eye washing and mouth disinfecting and as antispasmodic agent for alleviating the abdominal pains, and bronchial and chest congestions.

The decoction of dried rose water was used as diuretic and was recommended for reliving the fever, breast pain and menstrual problems. In Iranian traditional medicine, rose petals were cooked with sugar or honey and used for cooling the mind and body. Rose hips were prescribed as blood purifier and also are used by Iranian people with bread.

Rose Oil Benefits

 Helps Depression and Anxiety

One of the top benefits of rose oil is definitely its mood-boosting abilities. As our ancestors battled situations where their mental status was dampened, or otherwise impaired, they would have been naturally drawn to the pleasant sights and smells of the flowers that surrounded them. The journal Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice recently published a study that set out to prove these types of natural reactions when rose aromatherapy is used on human subjects experiencing depression and/or anxiety. With a subject group of 28 postpartum women, the researchers separated them into two groups: one who would be treated with 15-minute aromatherapy sessions using an essential oil blend consisting of rose otto and lavender twice a week for four weeks, and a control group.

Their results were quite remarkable. The aromatherapy group experienced “significant improvements” greater than the control group on both the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7). So not only did the women experienced significant decrease in postnatal depression scores, they also reported marked improvement in general anxiety disorder.

Fights Acne

Rose essential oil has so many qualities that make it a great natural remedy for the skin. The antimicrobial and aromatherapy benefits alone are great reasons to put a few drops in your DIY lotions and creams.

In 2010, researchers published a study uncovering that rose essential oil exhibited one of the strongest bactericidal activities compared to 10 other oils. Along with thyme, lavender and cinnamon essentials oils, rose oil was able to completely destroy Propionibacterium acnes (the bacteria responsible for acne) after only five minutes of a 0.25 percent dilution!


It’s no surprise that rose oil typically makes the list of top anti-aging essential oils. There are several reasons why rose essential oil can boost skin health and possibly slow down the aging process. First, the Rose damascena similar to many aromatic and medicinal plants exhibits antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. Reducing inflammation can help reduce puffiness and redness in the skin. In addition, it contains antioxidants that fight off free radicals which encourage skin damage and skin aging. Free radicals can cause damage to skin tissue, which results in wrinkles, lines and dehydration. Rose oil could be particularly helpful for skin cell renewal, which can keep the skin looking youthful for longer.

 Improves Dysmenorrhea (Painful Period)

A clinical study published in 2016 took a look at the effects of rose essential oil on women with primary dysmenorrhea. The medical definition of primary dysmenorrhea is cramping pain in the lower abdomen occurring just before or during menstruation, in the absence of other diseases being present such as endometriosis.

The researchers divided 100 patients into two groups, a group that receives a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug and the other group also took the anti-inflammatory along with receiving aromatherapy that consisted of a two percent rose essential oil.

After 10 minutes, there were no significant differences between the two groups. After 30 minutes, the group that received rose aromatherapy reported less pain than the other group.

Overall, the researchers conclude, “The present study suggests that aromatherapy with rose essential oil, which is a nonpharmacologic treatment method, as an adjuvant to conventional treatment methods may be beneficial for pain relief in individuals with primary dysmenorrhea.”

 Incredible Natural Perfume

The fragrance industry commonly used rose oil to create perfumes and to scent a variety of cosmetic products. With its sweet floral yet slightly spicy scent, rose essential oil can be used all by itself as a natural perfume. It only takes a drop or two and you can avoid all the fragrances on the market today that are loaded with dangerous synthetic scents.

How do you use rose essential oil? There are several main ways including:

  • Aromatically: You can diffuse the oil in your home using a diffuser or inhale the oil directly. To make a natural room freshener, put a few drops of oil along with water into a spritz bottle.
  • Topically: It has many skin benefits when used topically and it can be used undiluted. However, it’s always a good idea to dilute essential oils with a carrier oil like coconut or jojoba in a 1:1 ratio before applying it topically. After diluting the oil, perform a small patch test first before using the oil on larger areas. Once you know you that you don’t have a negative reaction then you can add a few drops of essential oil to a face serum, warm bath, lotion or body wash. If you’re using rose absolute, there is no need for dilution because it is already diluted.

Precautions for Rose Essential Oil

Can you ingest rose essential oil? No, this oil is not recommended for internal use.

Never use any essential oils too close to mucus membranes like your eyes. If you have sensitive skin, always dilute rose essential oil with a carrier oil and perform a patch test before topical use.

Always keep essential oils out of the reach of children and pets.